Over the last two decades, research in public health and occupational health has gradually conditions and their relationship with health, and more recently with inequalities. However, the studies conducted have hardly analysed the situations of low and middle income countries, the causes of inequalities, or the policies which help to improve health and reduce inequalities, among other topics. This book, the origin of which was the report produced in 2007 by the Employment Conditions Network (EMCONET) as part of work for the World Health Organisation Commission on the Social Determinants of Health, provides a broad view of how employment conditions affect inequalities in health among workers all over the world. This study presents a conceptual framework which helps in understanding the causes and consequences of employment conditions on health and quality of life in widely differing economic and political contexts, presents a classification of countries in terms of their labour market, describes very diverse labour market situations and the health problems of workers through an extensive number of case studies and, among many other topics, analyses the current economic crisis, identifying the institutional and political changes necessary to reduce inequalities in health. This book is intended for specialists in public health, health inequalities, and occupational health, as well as researchers in political and social sciences, and activists and members of unions and social movements, and in general, for those interested readers without specialised prior knowledge of these topics.